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新概念英语第一册笔记 第71一110课  

2010-06-15 17:48:57|  分类: 新概念许国璋 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Lesson 71   He's awful!
 
[词汇](8)
awful  adj. 让人讨厌的,坏的
telephone  v. & n. 打电话;电话
time  n. 次(数)
answer  v. 接(电话)
last  adj. 最后的,前一次的
phone  n. 电话(=telephone)
again dv. 又一次地
say (said)  v. 说

★awful   adj. 让人讨厌的,坏的
awfully  adv. 非常(在表示负面的情景中,可用awfully代替very)
I am awfully(very) sorry.

★time   n. 次(数)
time在英语中作不可数名词时表示“时间”;作可数名词时表示“次数”,三次或三次以上通常用基数词+times表示:
once,twice,three times
on time  按时,准时
in time  及时
all the time  一直
I’ve been waiting here all the time.
once upon a time   很久很久以前
cheat the time  打发时间
We are cheating the time by playing cards.
watch one’s time  等待时机
I’m watching my time.
of the time  当时
make time   腾出时间
Time will tell.   时间会证明一切。
Time and tide wait for no man.   岁月不等人。
Time heals all wounds.   时间会治愈所有的创伤。

★answer   v. 接(电话)
① v. 对……作出反应;响应
answer the phone/telephone  接电话
answer the door/doorbell  应声开门
Mary took a few minutes to answer the door.
玛丽拖了几分钟时间才去开门。
② v. 回答;答复
answer a letter  回信
I don’t think you’ve answered my question.
我认为你没有回答我的问题。
③ n. 答案;解决办法;答复
I wrote him several letters but couldn’t get an answer.
我给他写了好几封信,可都没有回音。
Do you know the answer to Question 10?
This is one of the possible answers to today’s environmental problems.
这是有可能解决当今环境问题的办法之一。

[课文]
JANE:    What's Ron Marston like, Pauline?
PAULINE: He's awful!
          He telephoned me four times yesterday,
 and three times the day before yesterday.
PAULINE: He telephoned the office yesterday morning and yesterday afternoon.
PAULINE: My boss answered the telephone.
JANE:    What did your boss say to him?
PAULINE: He said, "Pauline is typing letters. She can't speak to you now!"
PAULINE: Then I arrived home at six o'clock yesterday evening.
 He telephoned again. But I didn't answer the phone!
JANE:   Did he telephone again last night?
PAULINE: Yes, he did.
          He telephoned at nine o'clock.
JANE:    What did you say to him?
PAULINE: I said, 'This is Pauline's mother.
 Please don't telephone my daughter again!'
JANE:  Did he telephone again?
PAULINE: No, he didn't!

[课文注释]
1、What's Ron Marston like, Pauline?
What is sb. like?  询问某人的外貌或品行。
What's your father like?
what’s … like?  什么怎么样?
What's the climate like in your country?
What's the weather like in spring?

2、speak to sb. 与某人说话
May I speak to Pauline, please?
I’d like to speak to Pauline, please.
在电话中回答:This is….

3、pretend as  假装
She pretended herself as her mother.


Lesson 72   When did you … ?
 
today
this morning
this afternoon
this evening
tonight
 
yesterday
yesterday morning
yesterday afternoon
yesterday evening
last night
the day before yesterday
the day before yesterday in the morning
the day before yesterday in the afternoon
the day before yesterday in the evening
the night before last
 

Lesson 73   The way to King Street
 
[词汇](13)
week  n. 周
London  n. 伦敦
suddenly  adv. 突然地
bus stop  公共汽车站
smile  v. 微笑
pleasantly  adv. 愉快地
understand (understood)  v. 懂,明白
speak (spoke)  v. 讲,说(说话的动作;讲某种语言)
hand  n. 手
pocket  n. 衣袋
phrasebook  n. 短语手册,常用语手册
phrase  n. 短语
slowly  adv. 缓慢地
 
★week   n. 周
this week, last week等,前面不能加介词
the week before last   上上周
the week after next  下下周

★understand (understood)  v. 懂,明白
① v. 理解;懂
I don’t understand what you mean.
② v. 明了;了解;得知
Only today have I begun to understand the political situation in Northern Ireland.
直到今天我才了解了北爱尔兰的政治局势。
How the machine works is still not fully understood.

★hand   n. 手
finger  手指
thumb:大拇指
index finger/forefinger:食指
middle finger:中指
ring finger:无名指
little finger:小指

raise your hand:举手
wave (one's) hand:挥手
give sb. a (big) hand:(热烈的)给某人鼓掌;帮助某人,帮帮我
read one's hand:看手相
on the other hand:另一方面
have over  支出
hand in/out  上交作业,发作业
Ask the monitor to hand out the homework.
This is your homework for today, you must hand in your homework.

★phrasebook   n. 短语手册,常用语手册
Put your hand into your pocket. Take out your phrasebook.

★lose  v. (使)迷路
① v. 迷失;(使)迷路
lose one’s way   迷路
It’s very easy to lose your way in a strange city.
② v. 失去;丧失
He lost his sight in a car accident.  他在一起汽车交通事故中失明了。
She has just lost her job because of carelessness.
③ v. 遗失;丢失
We lost her in the crowd.
I can’t enter my house because I’ve lost my key on my way home.

[课文]
Last week Mrs. Mills went to London. She does not know London very well, and she lost her way.
Suddenly, she saw a man near a bus stop. 'I can ask him the way.' she said to herself.
'Excuse me,' she said. 'Can you tell me the way to King Street, please?'
The man smiled pleasantly. He did not understand English! He spoke German. He was a tourist.
Then he put his hand into pocket, and took out a phrasebook.
He opened the book and found a phrase. He read the phrase slowly. 'I am sorry,' he said. 'I do not speak English.'

[课文注释]
1、She does not know London very well.
know …well“对……了解”。
I don’t know him very well.
2、ask (sb.) the way  (向某人)问路。
lost one’s way    迷路

3、say to oneself  心中暗想
talk to oneself   自言自语地说

4、Can you tell me the way to King Street, please?
tell sb. the way (to)  告诉某人(去……的)路

Lesson 74   What did they do?
 
[词汇](5)
hurriedly  adv. 匆忙地
cut(cut)  v. 割,切
thirstily  adv. 口渴地
go(went)  v. 走
greet  v. 问候,打招呼
 
★cut(cut)   v. 割,切
cut himself = cut his face
以整体代替部分是英语中的一种修辞格,叫提喻(merism)。

[语法]
副词的用法
副词可以通过修饰动词说明句中的某个动词的情况,说明某事是如何、何时、何地等发生或进行的。
1、时间副词:yesterday, tomorrow, next …, three days …, before,today,the day after tomorrow,the day before yesterday
2、地点副词:home, abroad, downtown, upstairs, downstairs,there,here
时间和地点副词前面都不能加介词。
3、程度副词:so, very, quite, rather
程度副词一般加在形容词或副词前面,加强一种程度。
pretty: (adj.)漂亮的; (adv.)非常,很
enough:足够
good enough
so good, very good
4、频率副词:always, sometimes, usually, often, ever, never
放在be动词之后,行为动词之前;助动词和行为动词之间。表示强调则可放在句首或句末。
5、方式副词:
形容词的作用:放在名词前面起修饰限定的作用;放在be动词后面起叙述作用。
副词的作用:起修饰动词的作用。
S+ vi. +方式副词
S+ vt. +O(宾语)+方式副词

副词的构成:
1、adj.+ -ly
2、以辅音字母+y结尾的形容词,变y为i,再加y
3、形容词和副词同形
late——late well——well  hard——hard
lately  最近
She is always late.  (adj.)
She arrives home late.  (adv.)
Lesson 75   Uncomfortable shoes
 
[词汇](6)
ago  adv. 以前
buy(bough)  v. 买
pair  n. 双,对
fashion  n. (服装的)流行式样
uncomfortable  adj. 不舒服的
wear(wore)  v. 穿着
 
★ago   adv. 以前
ago  用于一般过去时;从现在的以前
I went to London three days ago.
She left 30 minutes ago.
Long long ago, there lived a king.
before  只能用于过去完成式;是从过去的某一点算起
Before I arrived at the station yesterday, the train had already left.

★buy  v. 买
buy——buys——bought
I buy a new book every week.
My sister buys a new dress every week.
I bought a coat in Paris last month.
sell 卖
retail 零售
purchase 正式的购买,大宗购物
market n. 市场,v. 销售
marketing manager 市场经理、销售经理
get  得到(口语)

★fashion   n. (服装的)流行式样
fashionable  时尚
be in fashion  是流行的
They are not in fashion this year.
be out of fashion  不流行
smart  巧妙,时髦

★uncomfortable  adj. 不舒服的
① adj. 不舒服的
She feels uncomfortable in tight boots.
② adj. 不安的;不自在的
You’ll have an uncomfortable feeling if you sit there alone.
He often feels uncomfortable with strangers.
③ adj. 令人不舒服的,不舒适的
This pair of shoes look very uncomfortable.

comfort 安慰,舒适
comfortable   adj. 舒服的、舒适的

★wear  v. 穿着
wear/wears/wore/wearing
I wear the same coats every day.
He wears a tie every day.
The lady is wearing a beautiful dress.
① v. 穿着;戴着;佩带着
Look at the beautiful silk scarf she’s wearing!
She never wears perfume.   她从不用香水。
② v. 面带;呈现;保持
He’s wearing a cheerful smile.
He wears his dignity even in great adversity.
他即使身处逆境也仍保持着自己的尊严。

wear 表穿着的状态
  That girl wears a pink shirt every day.
put on 表穿上的动作
Please put on your coat.
be dressed in   穿着……衣服,侧重打扮的意味
dress sb.  给某人打扮,穿衣服
My mother must dress my brother every day.
The lady was dressed in a funny coat and a large hat at the party last night.
in+ 颜色  穿……颜色的衣服
a girl in white
have…on 表状态
The emperor has nothing on.

[语法]
宾语从句
名词性从句分为三种:表语从句、主语从句、宾语从句。
宾语从句是名词性从句的一类,在主从复合句中,由一个句子来充当宾语,就是宾语从句。
一般是名词或代词做宾语,宾语一般是跟在动词或介词后
I want an apple.
in front of the window;some of them
主从复合句:主语从句,表语从句,定语从句,状语从句,宾语从句

宾语从句跟在两类词后:
表示人的情感或心理活动的形容词
S+ be+ adj. + 宾语从句
afraid/ sure/ sorry/ glad/ anxious/ confident/ proud
主句和宾语从句中有that连接,后边加句子。当主句是一般现在时,从句可以用任何时态。
I am afraid that I can't come tomorrow.
I am sorry that I didn't go yesterday.
I am glad that you can help them.
2、S+ v. +that +从句
think/ know/ believe/ say/ hope/ understand
主语(人)+这类动词+that+从句
She knows that you will come.
I believe I can fly.

[课文]
LADY:            Do you have any shoes like these?
SHOP ASSISTANT: What size?
LADY:            Size five.
SHOP ASSISTANT: What colour?
LADY:             Black.
SHOP ASSISTANT: I'm sorry. We don't have any.
LADY:             But my sister bought this pair last month.
SHOP ASSISTANT: Did she buy them here?
LADY:            No, she bought them in the U.S.
SHOP ASSISTANT: We had some shoes like those a month ago, but we don't have any now.
LADY:            Can you get a pair for me, please?
SHOP ASSISTANT: I'm afraid that I can't.
                  They were in fashion last year and the year before last.
                  But they're not in fashion this year.
 These shoes are in fashion now.
LADY:            They look very uncomfortable.
SHOP ASSISTANT: They are very uncomfortable.
 But women always wear uncomfortable shoes!


Lesson 77   Terrible toothache
 
[词汇](3)
appointment  n. 约会,预约
urgent  adj. 紧急的,急迫的
till  prep. 直至…为止

★appointment[E5pCintEmEnt]   n. 约会,预约
have an appointment (with sb.)   (与某人)有约会
Once you’ve make an appointment, you should try to keep it.
一旦你定好约会的事情,那么你应努力守约。
make an appointment
change an appointment
When will it be conveniet for you?

appoint   v. 分配;认命
appointed   被任命的
appointer   委派者,任命者
appointee   被任命者
appointment   约会,任命,普通约会
have a appointment with sb.  和某人有个预约
date    男女情人之间的约会

★urgent   adj. 紧急的,急迫的
① adj. 紧迫的;急迫的
The children in that area are in urgent need of medical attention.
那个地区的孩子们急需得到医疗方面的关注。
② adj. 催促的;坚持要求的
The cries and shouts became louder and more urgent.

[课文]
NURSE:   Good morning, Mr. Croft.
MR. CROFT: Good morning, nurse.
            I want to see the dentist, please.
NURSE:    Do you have an appointment?
MR. CROFT: No, I don't.
NURSE:   Is it urgent?
MR. CROFT: Yes, it is. It's very urgent.
            I feel awful. I have a terrible toothache.
NURSE:   Can you come at 10 a.m. on Monday, April 24th?
MR. CROFT: I must see the dentist now, nurse.
NURSE:   The dentist is very busy at the moment.
           Can you come at 2 p.m.?
MR. CROFT: That's very late.
           Can the dentist see me now?
NURSE:   I'm afraid that he can't, Mr. Croft.
 Can't you wait till this afternoon?
MR. CROFT: I can wait, but my toothache can't!
 

[课文注释]
1、I want to see the dentist, please.
I want to see sb. , please这一句式是表示想见某人时常用的句式之一。

2、Can you come at 10 a.m. on Monday, April 24th?
Can you come at…? 这一句式通常用来约定见面时间。英语中的时间次序一般是从小到大。a.m.(=ante meridiem)上午,有时写成A.M.或AM;下午则是p.m.(=post meridiem),有时写成P.M.或PM。

3、Can't you wait till this afternoon?
情态动词的否定疑问句,表示请求。


Lesson 79   Carol's shopping list
 
[词汇](7)
shopping  n. 购物
list  n. 单子
vegetable  n. 蔬菜
need  v. 需要
hope  v. 希望
thing  n. 事情
money  n. 钱

★shopping   n. 购物
go shopping
do some shopping
shopping center  购物中心
shopping mall  商业街区
make a shopping list  制作购物清单

★need   v. 需要
① v. 需要
Does he need to know?
② n. 需要(物);必要
There is no need of worrying.  不必担心。
There’s a growing need of new housing in many cities.
许多城市正面临着对新建房屋的不断增长的需求。
We don’t have any urgent need for money.

★hope   v. 希望
① v. 希望;盼望;期待
hope to do sth.
I hope to study abroad next year.
hope that
I hope that I/you study abroad next year.
② n. 希望,期望;指望
We are full of hope for the future.
Where there is life, there is hope.[留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。]
③ n. 期望着的事;被寄予希望的人
His hope is that his son will get married and settle down soon.
他所希望的是他儿子能早点结婚,安顿下来。
He is a young man of genius, the hope of Russian poetry.
他是一位年轻的天才,是俄罗斯诗歌的希望所在。

wish  不真实的一些东西,只是一些希望
Best wishes.

★have got= have
I have got some friends.
I haven’t got any friends.

[语法]
Must与Need
must表示“必须,应当”
  You mustn’t make a noise!   你不该弄出噪音来!
  Must I call the doctor?   我必须请大夫吗?
need 做情态动词时,need表示“需要”、“必须”,作助动词时多用于疑问句和否定句,没有时态,人称、数格的变化,可以直接加否定形式。不能单独做谓语,后边加动词原形。
need + 动词原形 -> need 是情态动词
  Need I make an appointment?   我需要约一下时间吗?
  You need not hurry.   你不必太匆忙。
need 做实义动词时,就有人称、数格及时态上的变化,疑问句中也需用助动词do;
need + to + 动词原形 -> need 是实义动词
在肯定句中,need不可以象 I can go home.中的can的用法一样在肯定句中直接做情态动词,而是做实义动词。
I need to go home.
在肯定句中,need后只跟动词不定式,不跟动词原形。而在否定句和疑问句中,情况就不是这样了。
I needn't study. (need 情态动词)
I don't need to study. (need 实义动词)
Need you study? (need 情态动词)
Do you need to study? (need 实义动词)

 

[课文]
TOM:  What are you doing, Carol?
CAROL: I'm making a shopping list, Tom.
TOM:  What do we need?
CAROL: We need a lot of thing this week.
CAROL: I must go to the grocer's.
        We haven't got much tea or coffee, and we haven't got any sugar or jam.
TOM:   What about vegetables?
CAROL: I must go to the greengrocer's.
        We haven't got many tomatoes, but we've got a lot of potatoes.
CAROL: I must go to the butcher's, too.
        We need some meat.
        We haven't got any meat at all.
TOM:   Have we got any beer and wine?
        And I'm not going to get any!
TOM:  I hope that you've got some money.
CAROL: I haven't got much.
TOM:  Well, I haven't got much either!

[课文注释] 
many和much均可译成“许多”,但用法不同:many主要用于疑问句和否定句中,放在可数名词之前;much用于疑问句和否定句中,放在不可数名词之前。
a lot of可用于可数名词前,又可用在不可数名词前,一般用于肯定句。


Lesson 80   I must go to the …
 
[词汇](5)
groceries n. 食品杂货
fruit n. 水果
stationery n. 文具
newsagent n. 报刊零售人
chemist n. 药剂师,化学家


Lesson 81   Roast beef and potatoes
 
[词汇](6)
bath  n. 洗澡
nearly  adv. 几乎,将近
ready  adj. 准备好的,完好的
dinner  n. 正餐,晚餐
restaurant n. 饭馆,餐馆
roast  adj. 烤的
 
★bath   n. 洗澡
have(take) a bath  洗澡

★nearly  adv. 几乎,将近
① v. 几乎;差不多;差点儿
I nearly missed the train.
② v. 极;密切地
He resembles a film star nearly.
The matter concerns us nearly.   这事与我们有切身关系。

★ready   adj. 准备好的,完好的
① adj. 准备就绪的
Dinner will be ready in 20 minutes.
Are you ready to leave?
② adj. 预先准备好的;立即可得到的
The apples are ripe and ready to eat.
We must get the house ready for our guests.
我们必须把房子收拾停当,以期我们的客人随时入住。
③ adj. 快的,立即的
He gave a ready consent.   他立即爽快地表示同意。
This new system gives users readier access to the data.
这个新系统可以使用户们更快捷地进入数据库。

★dinner   n. 正餐,晚餐
three meals a day   一日三餐
breakfast  早饭 lunch  午餐  tea  下午茶
supper  晚饭 dinner  正餐  meal  一顿饭

[课文]
SAM:   Hi, Carol! Where's Tom?
CAROL: He's upstairs.
      He's having a bath.
CAROL: Tom!
TOM:  Yes?
CAROL: Sam's here.
TOM:  I'm nearly ready.
 Hello, Sam. Have a cigarette.
SAM:  No, thanks, Tom.
TOM:  Have a glass of whisky then.
SAM:  OK. Thanks.
TOM:  Is dinner ready, Carol?
CAROL: It's nearly ready.
        We can have dinner at seven o'clock.
TOM:  Sam and I had lunch together today.
 We went to a restaurant.
CAROL: What did you have?
TOM:  We had roast beef and potatoes.
CAROL: Oh!
TOM:  What's the matter, Carol?
CAROL: Well, you're going to have roast beef and potatoes again tonight!


Lesson 82   I had …

[词汇](5)
breakfast n. 早饭
haircut n. 理发
party n. 聚会
holiday n. 假日


Lesson 83   Going on holiday
 
[词汇](5)
mess  n. 杂乱,凌乱
pack  v. 包装,打包,装箱
suitcase  n. 手提箱
leave  v. 离开
already  adv. 已经

★mess   n. 杂乱,凌乱
Excuse the mess.  乱七八糟,请原谅。

★pack  v. 包装,打包,装箱
① v. 打包,装箱
pack one’s suitcase  打包
pack one’s suitcases  收拾行李。
② v. 挤满,塞满
The movie fans packed the hall.   大厅里挤满了影迷。
The bus was packed with people.   公共汽车里挤满了人。

★leave   v. 离开
① v. 离开,出发
The train is going to leave in 5 minutes.
② v. 舍弃;脱离
John’s wife left him for another man.
约翰的妻子舍他而去,投入另一个男子的怀抱。
③ v. 留给,遗留;委托
‘Leave it to me,’he said.   “这事交给我来办吧,”他说道。
The famous actress left all her money to charity.

[语法]
现在完成时
表示在过去一个不确定的时间里发生的并与现在有着某种联系的动词;或者表示的开始于过去并持续到现在的动作。
肯定句: has/have + 动词的过去分词
否定形式:hasn't/haven't + 动词的过去分词
疑问形式:把 has/have 提前
规则动词的过去分词与过去式相同,而不规则动词的过去分词则无统一的规律可言,需特别加以记忆。

[课文]
CAROL: Hello, Sam. Come in.
TOM:   Hi, Sam. We're having lunch.
        Do you want to have lunch with us?
SAM:   No, thank you, Tom.
        I've already had lunch.
        I had at half past twelve.
CAROL: Have a cup of coffee then.
SAM:   I've just had a cup, thank you.
        I had one after my lunch.
TOM:   Let's go into the living room, Carol.
        We can have our coffee there.
CAROL: Excuse the mess, Sam.
        This room's very untidy. We're packing our suitcases.
        We're going to leave tomorrow.
CAROL: Tom and I are going to have a holiday.
SAM:   Aren't you lucky!
TOM:   When are you going to have a holiday, Sam?
SAM:   I don't know.
        I've already had my holiday this year.
CAROL: Where did you go?
SAM:   I stayed at home!

Lesson 85   Paris in the spring
 
[词汇](7)
Paris  n. 巴黎
cinema  n. 电影院
film n. 电影;胶卷
beautiful  adj. 漂亮的
city  n. 城市
never  adv. 从来没有
ever  adv. 在任何时候
 
★film  n. 电影
film  艺术影片
movie  好莱坞商业片

★beautiful   adj. 漂亮的
① adj. 美丽的,使生美感的
She was even more beautiful than I had expected.
她甚至比我预期的还要美。
② adj. 出色的,完美的;令人愉悦的
He did a beautiful job of painting the desk.
他油漆了书桌,活干得很漂亮。

beauty  n. 美人,美景,美好的东西
beauty contest  选美
beautify  v. 美化

beautiful  风景的美丽,形容女性和儿童
pretty  漂亮的,迷人的
handsome  adj. 英俊的
charming  adj. 迷人的,有魅力的

[语法]
现在完成时的特殊结构
have/has been to a place  曾经去过某地,但现在不在那个地方了
have been there  到过那里
My father is only 45 years old. But he has already been to nearly every country in the world.
have/has gone to a place   已经去那个地方或正在去的路上,到达与否不确定
They have gone to Paris.
My father has gone to H.K..

[课文]
GEORGE: Hello, Ken.
KEN:    Hi, George.
GEORGE: Have you just been to the cinema?
KEN:    Yes, I have.
GEORGE: What's on?
KEN:    'Paris in the spring'.
GEORGE: Oh, I've already seen it.
        I saw it on television last year.
        It's an old film, but it's very good.
KEN:    Paris is a beautiful city.
GEORGE: I've never been there.
        Have you ever been there, Ken?
KEN:    Yes, I have.
        I was there in April.
GEORGE: Pairs in the spring, eh?
KEN:    It was spring, but the weather was awful.
         It rained all the time.
GEORGE: Just like London!

[课文注解]
1、Have you ever been there, Ken?
have been to…到过……。have been there到过那里,have been to school/ work/ church之前不加the。
ever常用于否定句、疑问句以及表示条件的从句中表示“以往任何时候”、“曾经”、“在任何时候”、“从来”这类的意思。
2、What’s on?  上演什么电影?
be on  上演
3、all the time  一直,始终
4、Just like London!
just是“正好”,“恰恰是”的意思。
Have you just been on…(just是指时间,有“刚才”的意思)


Lesson 87   A car crash
 
[词汇](7)
attendant  n. 接待员
bring (brought/brought)  v. 带来,送来
garage  n. 车库,汽车修理厂
crash  n. 碰撞
lamp-post  灯杆
repair  v. 修理
try  v. 努力,设法

★attendant   n. 接待员
attend 参加
attend school 上学= go to school
attend a meeting 出席会议   attend a wedding 参加婚礼
attend a lecture 参加演讲   attend a funeral  参加葬礼
attend a ceremony  参加仪式  attend church  去教堂
join   参加某个组织,成为其成员
join in  使……成为成员,参加,加入;与某人一道参加某种活动
Would you like to join in us?  一块做某事
take part in   参加,强调参加人的作用,与某人一道参加某种活动,强调在其中起了作用

★bring (brought/brought)  v. 带来,送来
bring 带来;take 带走;fetch 去拿来;get 拿,常用于口语中
go into the garage
let sb.do sth.
Let's go into the garage.
 
★crash   n. 碰撞
have a crash  碰车
They have a crash every week.

★repair   v. 修理
① v. 修理;修复;修补
I’ll have to get the bicycle repaired.                              
She looked into the mirror and began to repair her face.
她向镜中望去,开始往脸上重敷脂粉。
② v. 弥补;修复;赔偿
How can I repair the mistake I have made?
It will take a while to repair the confidence of the general public.
要恢复公众的信心尚需要一些时间。

repair 用一定的技能修理什么东西
fix 同上,一般美语中用的较多
mend 修理打破或打碎的东西,一般指结构较为简单的,不需要特殊技能
do up 修理小东西,renovate翻新,结构比较简单
patch 打补丁,衣服或车胎坏了,修补一下

★try   v. 努力,设法
① v. 试图;设法,努力
He is trying to move the book shelf.   他正试图搬动那个书架。
They tried hard to repair the damaged car.
他们竭尽全力修理那辆被损坏了的汽车。
② v. 尝试,试用;试验
I’ll try that Italian restaurant next time.
下次我要到那家意大利餐馆去尝尝他们的菜。

have a try  尝试
It's a good try.  很好的尝试
try one's best/do one's best  尽某人最大的努力
Do your best!
Try your best!
I want to try my best.
I have already tried my best.
try to do sth.  试着去做某事
Can your mechanics repair my car?
They are still working on it.
They're trying to repair it.
manage to do sth. 设法做成了某事
I managed to repair my car yesterday.
try one's luck  试试某人的运气
try one’s hard at  尝试着做某事

[课文]
MR. WOOD:   Is my car ready yet?
ATTENDANT: I don't know. sir.
            What's the number of your car?
MR. WOOD:   It's LFZ 312G.
ATTENDANT: When did you bring it to us?
MR. WOOD:  I brought it here three days ago.
ATTENDANT: Ah, yes, I remember now.
MR. WOOD:  Have your mechanics finished yet?
ATTENDANT: No, they're still working on it. 
 Let's go into the garage and have a look at it.
ATTENDANT: Isn't that your car?
MR. WOOD:  Well, it was my car.
ATTENDANT: Didn't you have a crash?
MR. WOOD:  That's right.
            I drove it into a lamp-post.
            Can your mechanics repair it?
ATTENDANT: Well, they're trying to repair it, sir.
            But to tell you the truth. you need a new car!
[课文注释]
1、When did you bring it to us?
bring表示“送来”、“带来”和“拿来”的意思,在方位上多指朝说话人而来。
2、…they’re still working on it.
work on表示“从事”、“干(某事)”
3、在英文中可用一般疑问句的否定形式来表示期待、请求或希望得到肯定的答复。
Isn’t that your car?
Didn’t you have a crash?
4、drive into  撞倒……
5、they’re trying to repair it  他们正在设法修理
they后面接to+动词不定式


Lesson 88  Have you…yet?

buy—bought—bought  lose—lost—lost  find—found—found
make—made—made  meet—met—met   get—got—get
send—sent—sent  have—had—had   sweep—swept—swept
hear—heard—heard  tell—told—told  leave—left—left


Lesson 89  For sale
 
[词汇](12)
believe  v. 相信,认为
may  modal verb (用于请求许可)可以
how long  多长
since  prep. 自从
why  adv. 为什么
sell  v. 卖,出售
because  conj. 因为
retire  v. 退休
cost  v. 花费
pound  n. 英镑
worth  prep. 值……钱
penny  n. 便士

★believe   v. 相信,认为
I don’t believe you.  不相信某人说的话。
believe + (that) 从句(宾语从句)
He failed again because he is very lazy.
believe of +短语
 He failed again because of his laziness.
believe in sb. 信任某人
We believe in each other.  互相信任。
trust 信任(侧重于信任某人的能力)
Don’t trust the person who dare not look into your eyes.
belief n. (某人的)信仰,信条
We need to have strong belief in ourselves.
believable  adj. 可信的
unbelievable  adj. 不可信的

★sell   v. 卖,出售
for sale  待售
on sale  打折
salesman  推销员
salesmanager  销售经理

★retire   v. 退休
① v. 退休;离职
He’s going to retire soon from the sea.   不久他将退休,结束其航海生涯。
② v. 退出;退隐
He often retireds to his country house at weekends.
他周末通常到他那个乡间别墅生活。
The ladies retired, and the gentlemen went on drinking and chatting.
女士们离席退出,先生们则继续喝酒聊天。

★cost   v. 花费(物体做主语)
The coat costs $30.
How much does this house cost?

★worth   prep. 值……钱(物体的真正实际价值)
① prep. 相当于……价值,值……钱
How much is the necklace worth?
every penny of it   一分钱一分货
This coat is worth every penny of it.
② prep. 具有……价值;值得
be worth doing  值得……
The book is worth reading.
prove one’s worth  证明某人的价值

cost是指得到一件东西所花费的钱,其真正的价值可能低于或高于所要的价,这种价格主要是指商店内的标价或货主索要的价格。
worth主要是指某物的本身价值。
[语法]
for与since
在现在完成时中,since + 时间点:表示某个动作是何时开始的;for + 时间段:表示某个动作持续多长时间
I have already lived here for 20 years.
I have lived here since 1976.
Since when has he been there?

[课文]
NIGEL: Good afternoon.
        I believe that this is house is for sale.
IAN:   That's right.
NIGEL: May I have a look at it, please?
IAN:    Yes, of course. Come in.
NIGEL: How long have you lived here?
IAN:    I've live here for twenty years.
NIGEL: Twenty year! That's long time.
IAN:   Yes, I've been here since 1976.
NIGEL: Then why do you want to sell it?
IAN:   Because I've just retired.
 I want to buy a small house in the country.
NIGEL: How much does this house cost?
IAN:   $68,500.
NIGEL: Well, I like the house, but I can't decide yet.
        My wife must see it first.
IAN:   Women always have the last word.

[课文注释]
1、I can’t decide yet.
decision  n. 决定
decide to do sth.
make up one’s mind  下定决心
determine to do sth.
be determined to do sth.   (determined   adj. 坚决的,决定了的)
I am determined to give up this work.
2、have the last word  最后拍板


Lesson 90  Have you…yet?

cut—cut—cut come—came—come   rise—rose—risen
put—put—put give—gave—given   see—saw—seen
read—read—read swim—swam—swam   speak—spoke—spoken
set—set—set take—took—taken   shut—shut—shut
eat—ate—eaten do—did—done    go—went—gone


Lesson 91  Poor Ian!
 
[词汇](7)
still  adv. 还,仍旧
move  v. 搬家
miss  v. 想念,思念
neighbour  n. 邻居
person  n. 人
people  n. 人们
poor  adj. 可怜的

★still   adv. 还,仍旧
① adv. 还是,仍然
I still don’t understand what he meant.
② adv. 还要,甚至更
She looked very ill last week and this week looks still worse.
③ adv. 静止地;安静地
He is sitting still.  他一动不动地坐着。
The patient is lying still.  病人安静地躺着。

★move   v. 搬家;感动
The story moves me.
move to   搬到……地方
move in  搬进
move out   搬出来
move away  搬走
move into  搬进(由外到内的过程)
★miss   v. 想念,思念
① v. 想念,惦念
② v. 错过;未做到
He overslept and missed his train.  他睡过了头,错过了他那班火车。
I missed an opportunity of realizing my dream.
我错过了一个可能实现自己梦想的机会。

★person   n. 人
personal  adj. 个人的
personality  人格
personality manager  人事管理者
HR=Human Resource  人力资源部

★people   n. 人们
ten people  十个人
the peoples of China and USA(指两国人民,用复数形式)

[语法]
一般将来时
概念:打算或将来要发生(做)的事情
结构:
S+ will +V原
S+ won’t +V原
Will +S +V原
Yes, S +will.
No, S +won’t.
第一人称 I/we shall +V原
shall not =shan’t
will除表示纯粹的将来时间外,还表示说话人的意图和意愿,而shall除了表示将来时间外同时还表示说话人的责任或决心
与一般将来时连用的时间短语:in a day’s time(一天以后),in a year’s time(一年以后),in two weeks’ time(两周后),in three months’ time(3个月后)等等。

[课文]
CATHERING: Has Ian sold his house yet?
JENNY:      Yes, he has. He sold it last week.
CATHERING: Has he moved to his new house yet?
JENNY:      No, not yet. He's still here.
            He's going to move tomorrow.
CATHERING: When? Tomorrow afternoon.
JENNY:      No. Tomorrow afternoon. I'll miss him.
            He has always been a good neighbour.
LIDA:       He's a very nice person.
            We'll all miss him.
CATHERING: When will the new people move into this house?
JENNY:     I think that they'll move in the day after tomorrow.
LINDA:      Will you see Ian today, Jenny?
JENNY:      Yes, I will.
LINDA:     Please give him my regards.
CATHERING: Poor Ian!
            He didn't want to leave this house.
JENNY:      No, he didn't want to leave, but his wife did!
Lesson 92  When will …?
 
TODAY
this moring
this afternoon
this evening
tonight

TOMORROW
tomorrow morning
tomorrow afternoon
tomorrow evening
tomorrow night

THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW
the day after tomorrow in the moring
the day after tomorrow in the afternoon
the day after tomorrow in the evening
the night after next


Lesson 93  Our new neighbour
 
[词汇](6)
pilot  n. 飞行员
return  v. 返回
New York  n. 纽约
Tokyo  n. 东京
Madrid  n. 马德里
fly (flew, flown)  v. 飞行

★return   v. 返回
① v. 回,返回
He’s just returned from abroad.
② v. 回复
Spring will return soon.
He returned to his copy of the New York Times.
他又重读起他那份《纽约时报》来。
③ v. 归还;退还
I lent him my records and he never ruturned them!
我把自己的唱片借给他,而他却从未归还!
 
[课文]
Nigel is our new next-door neighbour. He's a pilot.
He was in the R.A.F.
He will fly to New York next month.
The month after next he'll fly to Tokyo.
At the moment, he's in Madrid. He flew to Spain a week ago.
He'll return to London the week after next.
He's only forty-one years old, and he has already been to nearly every country in the world.
Nigel is a very lucky man. But his wife isn't very lucky. She usually stays at home!

[课文注释]
1、next-door  隔壁的
2、the R.A.F.= the Royal Air Force  英国皇家空军
3、the month after next  再下个月
after next  表示“下下个”,如:the week after next下下个星期


Lesson 94  When did you/will you go to …?

[词汇](9)
Athens [5AWinz] n. 雅典
Berlin [bE:5lin] n. 柏林
Bombay [bCm5bei n. 孟买]
Geneva [dVi5ni:vE] n. 日内瓦
Moscow [5mCskEu] n. 莫斯科
Rome [rEum] n. 罗马
Seoul [sEul] n. 汉城
Stockholm [5stCkhEum] n. 斯德哥尔摩
Sydney [5sidni] n. 悉尼

Lesson 95  Tickets, please
 
[词汇](9)
return  n. 往返
train  n. 火车
platform  n. 站台
plenty  n. 大量
bar  n. 酒吧
station  n. 车站,火车站
porter  n. 收票员
catch(caught, caught)  v. 赶上
miss  v. 错过
★return   n. 往返
return tickets  往返车票
return tickets to London

★plenty   n. 大量
plenty of +可数或不可数名词[只能用于肯定句]
We have plenty of time.
enough [疑问句]
Have you enough books?
many [否定句中,修饰可数名词]
much [否定句中,修饰不可数名词]
We haven’t got much time.

★catch(caught, caught)  v. 赶上
① v. 赶上;及时赶到
Every morning she would catch the 7.30 train to town.
② v. 听清楚;理解
I didn’t catch what you said just now.   我没听清楚你刚才所说的话。
③ v. 引起(注意等);吸引,迷住
The bright colours on the wall caught our attention.
The beautiful view in front of me caught and held me.
我面前美丽的景色把我迷住了。

[语法]
had better和must
had better=’d better表示“最好还是”、“最好”,表达某种忠告或建议,用于指现在和将要做的事情。must则表示“必须”、“一定”,语气比had better强烈。
had better表示现在时或将来时,而不是过去时。其否定形式为had better not do sth.
You had better not smoke in the classroom.
[课文]
GEORGE: Two return tickets to London, please.
            What time will the next train leave?
ATTENDANT: At nineteen minutes past eight.
GEORGE:     Which platform?
ATTENDANT: Platform Two. Over the bridge.
KEN:        What time will the next train leave?
GEORGE:     At eight nineteen.
KEN:        We've got plenty of time.
GEORGE:     It's only three minutes to eight.
KEN:        Let's go and have a drink.
            There's a bar next door to the station.
GEORGE:     We had better go back to the station now, Ken.
PORTER:     Tickets, please.
GEORGE:     We want to catch the eight nineteen to London.
PORTER:      You've just missed it!
GEORGE:     What! It's only eight fifteen.
PORTER:     I'm sorry, sir.
            That clock's ten minutes slow.
GEORGE:     When's the next train?
PORTER:     In five hours' time!

[课文注释]
1、next door to…  与……相邻,在……隔壁
2、in five hour’s time  5小时之后
3、ten minutes slow  慢10分钟;ten minute fast  快10分钟
4、When’s the next train?
这个句子是用来询问火车启程时间时常见的句型。


Lesson 96  What's the exact time?

★exact  adj. 精确的;确切的
① adj. 精确的;确切的;恰好的
This vase is an exact replica.   这只花瓶是件很巧妙的复制品。
It’s the exact shape I’ve been looking for.
这恰好是我一直以来要寻找的形状。
② adj. 严格的;严厉的
The workers must obey exact rules.   工人们必须遵守严格的规定。

 

Lesson 97  A small blue case
 
[词汇](8)
leave (left, left)  v. 遗留
describe  v. 描述
zip  n. 拉链
label  n. 标签
handle  n. 提手,把手
address  n. 地址
pence  n. 便士(penny 的复数形式)
belong  v. 属于


★describe   v. 描述
① v. 描述;形容
describe  根据客观事实描述
She described the woman to the police.
He described the whole event in detail.
portray  生动地描述人或情景
② v. 把……说成;把……称为(as)
They describe him as ambitious.  他们把他称为雄心勃勃的人。

★address   n. 地址
address n. 地址;演讲(精心准备过的,正式的)
speech:(最常见的)各种各样的演讲
lecture:(学术性的)演讲

★belong   v. 属于
① v.(在所有权方面)属于
That pen belongs to him.
belong to (不能用于进行时态)
This book belongs to me. = This book is mine.
This book doesn't belong to me.
Does this book belong to you?
② v. 是……的成员
Do you belong to the golf club?
Which party does he belong to?   他是哪个党的党员?
③ v.(在关系等方面)属于
We belong to the same generation.   我们属于同代人。
The novel really belongs to the 19th century.
这部小说其实是属于19世纪的。

[课文]
MR. MALL:   I left a suitcase on the train to London the other day.
ATTENDANT: Can you describe it, sir?
MR. MALL:   It's a small blue case and it's got a zip.
            There's a label on the handle with my name and address on it.
ATTENDANT: Is this case yours?
MR. MALL:   No, that's not mine.
ATTENDANT: What about this one? This one's got a label.
MR. MALL:   Let me see it.
ATTENDANT: What's your name and address?
MR. MALL:   David Hall, 83, Bridge Street.
ATTENDANT: That's right. D.N. Hall, 83, Bridge Street.
 Three pounds fifty pence, please.
MR. MALL:   Here you are.
ATTENDANT: Thank you.
MR. MALL:   Key!
ATTENDANT: What's matter?
MR. MALL:  This case doesn't belong to me!
            You've given me the wrong case!

[课文注释]
1、the other day  几天前(只能用于过去时)
the other+表示时间的名词通常只与过去时态连用。类似的短语有:the other morning/ afternoon/evening/night,the other week/month/year。
2、83, Bridge Street  大桥街83号,地址要把门牌号放在街号的前面。
3、There's a label on the handle with my name and address on it.
句中的with在这里可理解为“有”的意思。
a girl with long hair
a boy with blue eyes
4、fifty pence  50便士
Pence是penny的复数形式,表示币值。


Lesson 99  Ow!
 
[词汇](11)
ow  int. 哎呦
slip(slipped, slipped)  v. 滑到,滑了一脚
fall(fell, fallen)  v. 落下,跌倒; n. 秋天
downstairs  adv. 下楼 (upstairs 上楼)
hurt(hurt, hurt)  v. 伤, 伤害, 疼痛
back  n. 背
stand up  起立,站起来
help  v. 帮助
at once  立即
sure  adj. 一定的,确信的
X-ray  n. X光透视

★slip(slipped, slipped)  v. 滑到,滑了一脚
① v. 滑倒
She slipped and fell down on the wet stones.
② v. 滑落;脱落
The soap slipped out of her hand.   肥皂从她的手上滑落。
③ v. 下滑;下跌
Profits continue to slip this year.   利润今年呈持续下跌趋势。
④ v. 遗忘;忽略
Our wedding anniversary completely slipped my mind.
我把我们的结婚纪念日忘得一干二净。

★hurt(hurt, hurt)  v. 伤, 伤害, 疼痛
① v. 弄痛;使受伤
He fell off the bicycle and hurt his leg.
② v. 危害;损害
The case has hurt his reputation.  那个案件损害了他的声誉。
I don’t mean to hurt you.   我本无意伤害你的感情。

★help   v. 帮助
① v. 帮助;援助;救助
He devoted his life to helping the disabled.
他付出一生的心血帮助那些残疾人。
help sb. do sth. / help sb. to do sth. 帮助某人做某事
help each other  彼此帮助
② v. 对……有帮助;对……有好处
My knowledge of French helped me a lot while I was travelling in France.
我在法国旅行时,我的法文知识帮了我大忙。
Humour can help in a tense situation.   幽默能够缓和紧张局面。
③ n. 帮助
ask for help:求救
call for help:求救
seek help:求救
effective help  有效的帮助
mutual help:互相帮助
timely help  及时的帮助
give help to sb.   给某人提供帮助
offer help to sb. 

helpful  有帮助的
helpless  无助的
I feel helpless.
a helping hand  助手

[语法]
宾语从句
宾语从句在句中作宾语,一般用that引导,但在口语中经常省略掉that。可用在say,think,believe,hope,know,understand,suppose等动词之后;也可用在某些描写感情的形容词之后,如afraid,sure,sorry,glad等之后。
如果间接引语中的引述动词是现在时,那么其后的时态通常与原来口头陈述句的时态相同。
I know that I can repair this car.
I am sorry that you are ill.
宾语从句还可以由when,where,what,why,how以及if和whether来引导,而它们在句中不能省略,且宾语从句通常都应以陈述句的形式出现。
S +be adj./v. +if +一般疑问句
S +be adj./v. +特殊疑问句 +陈述句
I want to know if you went to London last week.
I don’t know what you are talking about.

[课文]
ANDY: Ow!
LUCY: What's the matter, Andy?
ANDY: I slipped and fell downstairs.
LUCY: Have you hurt yourself?
ANDY: Yes, I have.
       I think that I've hurt my back.
LUCY: Try and stand up.
       Can you stand up? Here.
       Let me help you.
ANDY: I'm sorry, Lucy.
       I'm afraid that I can't get up.
LUCY:  I think that the doctor had better see you.
       I'll phone Dr. Carter.
LUCY:  The doctor says that he will come at once.
       I'm sure that you need an X-ray, Andy.


Lesson 100  He says that…
She says that…They say that…

[词汇](1)
licence n. 执照

[语法]
直接引语和间接引语
直接引语就是直接引用说话人原来所说的话;间接引语就是原话的转述。直接引语放在引号里,间接引语是把说话人的原话变成宾语从句。
间接引语中,宾语从句中的动词与主句中的主要动词在时态上必须保持一致。
把直接陈述改为间接陈述改为间接引语时,谓语动词形式的变化体现在人称上。
  She says she’s staying at a Youth Hostel.


Lesson 101  A card from Jimmy
 
[词汇](7)
Scotland   n. 苏格兰(英国)
card  n. 明信片
youth n. 青年
hostel   n. 招待所,旅馆(简易的)
association   n. 协会
soon  adv. 不久
write(wrote, written) v. 写

★card   n. 明信片
a birthday card  生日卡片
a new year card  新年贺卡

★hostel    n. 招待所,旅馆(简易的)
hotel:宾馆,设施比较好的旅店
inn:(尤指乡村或公路边的)旅馆,小客栈
motel:汽车旅馆

★soon   adv. 不久
① adv. 不久
Soon she would have to resign.  她不久就得辞职了。
② adv. 早;快
Why are you leaving so soon?
He came sooner than we expected.  他来得比我们预料的快。

★write(wrote, written) v. 写
① v. 写,书写
She writes legibly.  她笔迹清楚。
② v. 写信
I’ll write to you soon.  我会尽快给你写信的。
③ v. 写作;作曲;当作家
He started to write for the stage.  他开始成为一名剧作家。
He soon finished writing a symphony.

[语法]
反意疑问句:
概念:询问某种情况是否真实,或者别人是否同意自己。
结构:分为两部分,逗号前面为主句;后面为反意疑问句。当前面是肯定句时,后面是否定句;当前面是否定句时,后面是肯定句。回答这种问句要简略,根据事实回答,如果答语本身是肯定的,就用Yes;如果答语本身是否定的,就用No。
特点:
1、问句的主语与主句的主语一致;
2、前后的助动词一致;
3、前后的时态一致。
4、语调有升有降:升调 - 表示疑问,期待对方回答;降调 - 语气确定,不需要回答。
Sally can speak French, can't she?
Sally can't speak French, can she?

[课文]
GRANDMOTHER: Read Jimmy's card to me please, penny.
PENNY:        'I have just arrive in Scotland and I'm staying at a Youth Hostel.'
GRANDMOTHER: Eh?
PENNY:        He say he's just arrived in Scotland.
 He says he's staying at a Youth Hostel.
              You know he's a member of the Y.H.A.
GRANDMOTHER: The what?
PENNY:        The Y.H.A., Mum.
              The Youth Hostels Association.
GRANDMOTHER: What else does he say?
PENNY:        'I'll write a letter soon.
              I hope you all well.'
GRANDMOTHER: What? Speak up. Penny.
              I'm afraid I can't hear you
PENNY:        He say he'll write a letter soon.
 He hopes we are all well. 'Love, Jimmy.'
GRANDMOTHER: Is that all?
              He doesn't say very much, does he?
PENNY:        He can't write very much on a card, Mum.

[课文注释]
1、the Y.H.A.=the Youth Hostels Association:青年招待所协会(青招协)
2、speak up:大声地说
up作副词用时可表示强度等的由弱到强、由低到高。
Can you get up to that note?   你能唱得到那么高的音吗?
3、Love, Jimmy:爱你的吉米
Yours, Jimmy  你的吉米,这是朋友间通信时常用的结束语。


Lesson 103  The French test
 
[词汇](17)
exam  n. 考试
pass  v. 及格,通过
mathematics   n. (maths是缩写)数学
question   n. (具体的某一个)问题
easy  adj. 容易的
enough  adv. 足够的
paper  n. 考卷
fail  v. 未及格,失败
answer  v. 问答
mark  n. 分数
rest  n. 其他的东西
difficult  adj. 困难的
hate  v. 讨厌
low  adj. 低的
cheer  v. 振作,振奋
guy  n. 家伙,人
top  n. 上方,顶部

★exam   n. 考试
exam/examination (综合性的)考试
midterm exam 期中考试
final exam 期末考试
sham exam 模拟考试
entrance examination 入学考试
test (单项技能的)考试
quiz (临时性的)小测验

★pass   v. 及格,通过
pass the exam  通过考试
I think I passed the exam.
pass in  + 具体的某一科要通过
She thinks she passed in English.

★question   n. (具体的某一个)问题
problem:(抽象)的问题
issue 国际争端,分歧
question v. 审讯,质问;n.(具体的一个)问题
The policeman is questioning the thief

★fail   v. 未及格,失败;n. 失败
① v. 失败;及格
Doctors failed to save the old man’s life.
He failed his French paper because it was too difficult.
② v.(身体等)衰退;变弱;凋谢
My eyesight is failing.
The flowers failed for lack of sunshine.  花因缺少阳光而凋谢。
③ v.(后接不定式)不,不能;忘记
fail to do something   未能做什么事情
I failed to save the boy from the river.
I fail to see why you find it so extraordinary.
我不明白为什么你们认为它如此与众不同。
He failed to persuade me.  他没能说服我。

★answer   v. 问答(普通用词)
reply   书面用语
repond   正式文体

★hate   v. 讨厌
① v. 讨厌;不喜欢;有反感
I hate beef.
hate to do sth.  一次性的行为
I hate to go out this afternoon.
hate doing sth.  不喜欢做……
I hate playing football with him.
② v. 憎恨;憎恶
He said that he hated hypocrisy.   他说他憎恶虚伪。

[语法]
too与enough的用法
1、enough的用法
一般的程度副词都应放在形容词或副词的前面,但是enough必须放在形容词或副词的后面。
① 在形容词之后使用
He failed the exam because it wasn’t easy enough.
他考试不及格,因为题不够容易。
She is beautiful enough to be a hostess.
I can drive quickly enough.
② 在名词之前使用
He didn’t buy the car because he didn’t have enough money.
他没买那部车,因为他没有足够的钱。
③ 可以用在enough…for sb./ sth.和enough…to do sth.结构之中
She hasn’t got enough money for a holiday.
She’s not old enough to live alone.
The wall is low enough for them to climb over.
这堵墙矮到如此之程度,以至于他们可以攀越过去。
2、too的用法
① 表示“过于”
She couldn’t answer the questions because they were too difficult for her.
② 可以用在too…for sb./sth.结构之中
This skirt is too big for me.
③ 可以用在too…to do sth.(太……而不能)结构之中
It’s too far to walk home from here.
The wall is too high for them to climb over.
这堵墙太高了,他们无法攀越过去。

[课文]
GARY:    How was the exam, Richard?
RICHARD: Not too bad.
          I think I passed in English and Mathematics.
          The questions were very easy.
          How about you, Gary?
GARY:   The English and Maths papers weren't easy enough for me.
          I hope I haven't failed.
RICHARD: I think I failed the French paper.
          I could answer sixteen of the question.
          They were very easy.
          But I couldn't answer the rest.
          They were too difficult for me.
GARY:   French test are awful, aren't they?
RICHARD: I hate them.
          I'm sure I've got a low mark.
GARY:  Oh, cheer up! Perhaps we didn't to do badly.
          The guy next to me wrote his name at the top of the paper.
RICHARD: Yes?
GARY:    Then he sat there and looked at it for three hours!
 He didn't write a word!

[课文注释]
1、the English and Maths papers
paper这个词当“试卷”讲时,是可数名词。
2、cheer up  振作起来
3、at the top of   在……顶端
反义词:at the bottom of   在……末端

Lesson 104  Too, very, enough
 
[词汇](13)
clever  adj. 聪明的
stupid  adj. 笨的
cheap  adj. 便宜的
expensive  adj. 贵的
fresh  adj. 新鲜的
stale  adj. 变馊的
low  adj. 低的,矮的
loud  adj. 大声的
high  adj. 高的
hard  adj. 硬的
sweet  adj. 甜的
soft  adj. 软的
sour  adj. 酸的
 
★clever   adj. 聪明的(主要指学习能力)
bright  伶俐
intelligent   智商高
smart   精明
shrewd   洞察力
wise   知识广博,有智慧
talented   聪明的,通过能力获得的才能
gifted   有天赋的

★stupid   adj. 笨的
silly   智力低下;昵称
fool  v. 愚弄;n. 傻瓜,笨蛋
 April fool’s day  愚人节

★cheap   adj. 便宜的(价格低而且质量也不好)
inexpensive   adj. 物美价廉

★expensive   adj. 贵的(对于购买者的购买能力而言)
costly  奢侈的,是真的豪华的
dear   物以稀为贵
priceless   无价的

 


Lesson 105  Full of mistakes
 
[词汇](5)
spell  v. 拼写 (spelt, spelt)
intelligent  adj. 聪明的,有智慧的
mistake  n. 错误
present  n. 礼物
dictionary  n. 词典

★spell   v. 拼写 (spelt, spelt)
Can you spell your name?
I want you to spell your name.
How to spell the word?

★mistake   n. 错误
mistake 比较一般的错误,认识不足,理解不对
make a mistake
I often make a mistake in the exam.
She always makes some mistakes in the homework.
error 没有按照既定的程序、规定犯的错误
fault 侧重于责任
It's my fault.

★present   n.(小)礼物
humble present 区区薄礼
at present 目前
gift 礼物(比较贵重)

[语法]
动词不定式
在英语中,当一个动词被另一个动词紧跟时,它们之间必须加不定式符号(to),to是小品词。不定式符号后面的动词只能是原形,而不能是过去式或分词形式。动词不定式可做除了谓语之外的所有句子成分。
结构:
① 不定式作动词的宾语:V+ to V原
② V+ 名词/宾格代词+ to V原
不定式的否定形式是在to之前加not。
to +名/代/Ving  to为介词

[课文]
THE BOSS: Where's Sandra, Bob? I want her.
BOB:       Do you want to speak to her?
THE BOSS: Yes, I do.
           I want her to come to my office.
           Tell her to come at once.
SANDRA:   Did you want to see me?
THE BOSS: Ah, yes, Sandra.
           How do you spell "intelligent'?
           Can you tell me?
SANDRA:   I-N-T-E-L-L-I-G-E-N-T.
THE BOSS: That's right. You've typed it with only one 'L'.
 This letter's full of mistakes.
 I want you to type it again.
SANDRA:   Yes, I'll do that.
           I'm sorry about that.
THE BOSS: And here's a little present for you.
SANDRA:   What's it?
THE BOSS: It's a dictionary. I hope it'll help you.

[课文主释]
How do you spell "intelligent'?
How do you spell…? 
询问某个单词或某人的姓名如何拼写的常用句型。


Lesson 106  I want you/him/them to
 
[词汇](3)
carry  v. 携带
correct  v. 改正,纠正
keep  v. 保存,保留
 
★correct   v. 改正,纠正
① v. 改正;纠正
Please correct me if I’m wrong.
I spent the whole morning correcting exam papers.
我花了整个上午的时间批改试卷。
② v. 校正;矫正
Let me correct my watch first.
This pair of glasses will correct your eyesight problem.


Lesson 107  It's so small.
 
[词汇](7)
madam  n. 夫人,女士
smart  adj. 漂亮的
as well  同样
suit  v. 适于
pretty  adj. 漂亮的

★suit   v. 适于
① v. 适合;适宜于
This coat suits me.
This coat doesn’t suit me at all.
One o’clock? That does not suit me.  一点钟?那个时间对我来说不合适。
② v. 相称,相当
He would not be suit to the job.
Blue suits her.   蓝色与她相配。

★as well   同样
as well=too  多用于口语,一般用于肯定句中
I can do it as well.

[语法] 
形容词的比较级和最高级
1、形容词的比较级和最高级规则:
① 一般的形容词后面直接加er或est
② 以e结尾的形容词后面直接加r或st
③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的形容词,把y变i,后面加er或est
④ 以短元音加辅音结尾的形容词,双写辅音,后面加er或est
⑤ 少数形容词的比较级和最高级是不规则的
⑥ 多音节形容词
较高比较级:more,the most
较低比较级:less,the least
判断音节:如果音标中有一个元音就是单音节;有两个元音就是双音节;有多于两个元音就是多音节。
2、形容词的比较级和最高级的用法
比较级只用于两者之间,通常与than连用。形容词比较级之所指如果很清楚,也可以独立存在;最高级用于三者或三者以上。形容词的最高级在使用时必须加定冠词,并常伴有一个表示范围的介词短语或从句。
long——longer(than)——longest(be+ the longest+ 表示范围的短语或从句)
This is the longest river I have ever seen.
大多数两个以上音节的形容词可与more/less连用构成其比较级形式,与most/least连用构成其最高级形式。
  This model’s less expensive than that one.
  The other model’s more expensive.

[课文]
ASSISTANT: Do you like this dress, madam?
LADY:       I like the colour very much.
            It's lovely dress, but it's too small for me.
ASSISTANT: What about this one?
            It's lovely dress. It's very smart.
            Short skirts are in fashion now.
            Would you like to try it?
LADY:       All right.
 I'm afraid this green dress it too small for me as well.
            It's smaller than the blue one.
 I don't like the colour either.
 It doesn't suit me at all.
 I think the blue dress is prettier.
LADY:     Could you show me another blue dress?
 I want a dress like that one, but it must be my size.
ASSISTANT: I'm afraid I haven't got a larger dress.
            This is the largest dress in the shop.

[课文注释]
1、Short skirts are in fashion now.
be in fashion   时髦,流行

2、Would you like to try it?
Would you like…?  你愿意……吗?(用于表示委婉的请求或提议)
would like sth.
I would like some apples.
Would you like some apples?
would like to do sth.
I would like to have some apples.
Would you like to have some apples?
Could you …?用在表示请求,比Can you…?更委婉。
  Could you tell me the way to the post office?


Lesson 108   How do they compare?

★compare  v. 比较,对照
The article compares the different features of imported cars on the market.
这篇文章比较了市场上进口汽车的不同特点。
Compare to our little garden, his garden seemed like a park.


Lesson 109   A good idea
 
[词汇](8)
idea  n. 主意
a little  少许
teaspoonful  n. 一满茶匙的
less  adj. 较少的,更少的
a few  几个
pity  n. 遗憾
instead  adv. 代替
advice  n. 建议,忠告

★idea   n. 主意
idea 含义较广,主意,想法,各种看法
I have a good idea.
opinion 对某事具体的看法、观点、想法
in one's opinion  在我看来
thought 成系统的思想
view 侧重个人意见
viewpoint 观察视点

★a little   少许
★a few   几个
a little 修饰不可数名词,表示肯定含义;little 修饰不可数名词,表示否定含义
I have a little milk.
I have little milk.
a few 修饰可数名词,表示肯定含义;few 修饰可数名词,表示否定含义
She has a few friends.
可数名词的多与少,用many与few来表达;不可数名词的多与少,则用much与little来表达。

★instead   adv. 代替
① adv. 作为替代
I’m tired and can’t attend the meeting; you could go instead.
She did not want to go to the university. Instead, she decided to become a singer.
② adv. 代替,而不是(of)
She wanted to have milk instead of juice.
She prefers buying books instead of borrowing them from the library.
她宁可买书而不愿到图书馆去借。

★advice   n. 建议,忠告(不可数名词);v. 建议
a piece of advice 一条建议
take one's advice 听众某人的建议
You'd better take my advice next time.
follow one's advice  采纳某人的建议
advise sb. to do sth.  建议某人做某事
I advice you to stop smoking.

★smoke  v. 抽烟
① v. 抽(纸烟、烟斗等)
He smokes cigars.  他抽雪茄。
② v. 冒烟;冒雾气
She could see a chimney smoking in the nearby village.
她可以看到附近村子里的烟囱在冒烟。
③ v. 熏制(鱼肉等)
Do you know how to smoke hams?  你知道如何熏制火腿吗?

[课文]
CHARLOTTE: Shall I make some coffee, Jane?
JANE:      That's a good idea, Charlotte.
CHARLOTTE: It's ready. Do you want any milk?
JANE:       Just a little, please.
CHARLOTTE: What about some sugar?
            Two teaspoonfuls?
JANE:       No, less than that.
            One and a half teaspoonfuls, please.
            That's enough for me.
JANE:     That was very nice.
CHARLOTTE: Would you like some more?
JANE:       Yes, please.
 I'd like a cigarette, too.
            May I have one?
CHARLOTTE: Of course.
            I think there are a few in that box.
JANE:       I'm afraid it's empty.
CHARLOTTE: What a pity!
JANE:      It doesn't matter.
CHARLOTTE: Have a biscuit instead.
            Eat more and smoke less!
JANE:       That's very good advice!

[课文注释]
1、Shall I make some coffee, Jane?
make some coffee  煮咖啡
I will make some coffee for you.
Shall I(we) do something?
Shall we stay at home?

2、One and a half teaspoonfuls, please. 
在英语中,比1大的东西,即使比2小,也需要用复数表示。

3、It doesn’t matter.  没关系。

4、What a pity! 真遗憾。
英语中常用“What a+可数名词”和“What +不可数名词”的结构来表示感叹。

5、I’ve ever seen.  我所见过的。


Lesson 110   How do they compare?
 

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